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Lo que todo supervisor de obras debe saber! Francisco Gonzáles de Posada, Mercedes Gonzáles Redondo, Ma. Robert Davis Cook , David S. Surround sound is characterized by a listener location or sweet spot where the audio effects work best, and presents a fixed or forward perspective of the sound field to the listener at this location. Though cinema and soundtracks represent the major uses of surround techniques, its scope of application is broader than that as surround sound permits creation of an audio-environment for all sorts of purposes. Surround sound technologies can also be used in music to enable new methods of artistic expression. In 1967, the rock group Pink Floyd performed the first-ever surround sound concert at “Games for May”, a lavish affair at London’s Queen Elizabeth Hall where the band debuted its custom-made quadraphonic speaker system.
The first documented use of surround sound was in 1940, for the Disney studio’s animated film Fantasia. In 1957, working with artist Jordan Belson, Henry Jacobs produced Vortex: Experiments in Sound and Light – a series of concerts featuring new music, including some of Jacobs’ own, and that of Karlheinz Stockhausen, and many others – taking place in the Morrison Planetarium in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. In 1978, a concept devised by Max Bell for Dolby Laboratories called “split surround” was tested with the movie Superman. 1 version of surround sound originated in 1987 at the famous French Cabaret Moulin Rouge.
A French engineer, Dominique Bertrand used a mixing board specially designed in cooperation with Solid State Logic, based on 5000 series and including six channels. Respectively: A left, B right, C centre, D left rear, E right rear, F bass. Surround sound is created in several ways. The first and simplest method is using a surround sound recording technique—capturing two distinct stereo images, one for the front and one for the back or by using a dedicated setup, e. There are many free and commercial software programs available for Ambisonics, which dominates most of the consumer market, especially musicians using electronic and computer music. Finally, surround sound can also be achieved by mastering level, from stereophonic sources as with Penteo, which uses Digital Signal Processing analysis of a stereo recording to parse out individual sounds to component panorama positions, then positions them, accordingly, into a five-channel field.
This section does not cite any sources. In most cases, surround sound systems rely on the mapping of each source channel to its own loudspeaker. Matrix systems recover the number and content of the source channels and apply them to their respective loudspeakers. Surround mixes of more or less channels are acceptable, if they are compatible, as described by the ITU-R BS.
LS and RS are fed by the monophonic signal at an attenuated level of -3 dB. The function of the center channel is to anchor the signal so that any central panned images do not shift when a listener is moving or is sitting away from the sweet spot. The center channel also prevents any timbral modifications from occurring, which is typical for 2-channel stereo, due to phase differences at the two ears of a listener. 1 surround, phantom images between the front speakers are quite accurate, with images towards the back and especially to the sides being unstable. 1 channel surround is another setup, most commonly used in large cinemas, that is compatible with 5.
1 surround, though it is not stated in the ITU-standards. 1 surround setup, with the speakers situated 15 degrees off centre from the listener. Surround recording techniques can be differentiated into those that use single arrays of microphones placed in close proximity, and those treating front and rear channels with separate arrays. A well established microphone array is the Fukada Tree, which is a modified variant of the Decca Tree stereo technique. The array consists of 5 spaced cardioid microphones, 3 front microphones resembling a Decca Tree and two surround microphones. Here a baffle is used for separation between the front left and right channels, which are 30 cm apart. Outrigger omnidirectional microphones, low-pass filtered at 250 Hz, are spaced 3 meters apart in line with the L and R cardioids.
OCT technique using the same front array with added surround microphones. The front array is designed for minimum crosstalk, with the front left and right microphones having supercardioid polar patterns and angled at 90 degrees relative to the center microphone. Specialized microphone arrays have been developed for recording purely the ambience of a space. These arrays are used in combination with suitable front arrays, or can be added to above mentioned surround techniques.
Many recordings do not require pickup of side reflections. For Live Pop music concerts a more appropriate array for the pickup of ambience is the cardioid trapezium. All four cardioid microphones are backward facing and angled at 60 degrees from one another, therefore similar to a semi-circle. This is effective for the pickup of audience and ambience.