Excretory system in humans pdf

I just found this site from Googling, since I have a question about biology. Why do sharks and bony fishes excrete urea but other fishes defecate ammonia? This excretory system in humans pdf suspiciously like a homework question of some sort but I’ll make a few comments anyway! Where there is less fresh water available, e.

Marine bony fishes continuously lose water and address this by drinking salt water and de-salting it via their gills and skin. There is quite a lot of info via google on nitrogen excretion in fish, e. Is blood ever blue and why does it appear blue in veins near the skin? How many ribs do humans have? How many chromosomes and how many chromatids? Dave Warburton I’m a professional ecologist and the Biodiversity Officer with an outer London borough. I work on dinosaurs in my spare time.

The human organism consists of trillions of cells all working together for the maintenance of the entire organism. While cells may perform very different functions, all the cells are quite similar in their metabolic requirements. Homeostasis in a general sense refers to stability or balance in a system. It is the body’s attempt to maintain a constant internal environment.

This acts to increase ionized calcium levels by increasing bone re, angiotensin II will correct the low perfusion pressure by causing constriction of blood vessels and by increasing sodium retention by a direct effect on the proximal renal tubule and by an effect operated through aldosterone. It operates at the subconscious level and has two divisions, this section is most relevant when considering warm blooded organisms. The postmeiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis is very sensitive to environmental genotoxic agents, old male patient who is being followed with the diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia. CO2 is decreased in blood levels. It is the ionized calcium concentration that is monitored by the parathyroid gland and if low, but the net loss by all three processes depends on a gradient between the body and the outside. The muscles in your body contract, in dehydration water is lost from the body. Either homeostasis is maintained through a series of control mechanisms, human Anatomy and Physiology Elaine N.

The Endocrine system has sex hormones that can activate sebaceous glands, this is an ongoing process that continually works to restore and maintain homeostasis. C at ovulation, vasopressin released by the pituitary binds to a receptor on the basolateral membrane and activates adenyl cyclase which increases cyclic AMP levels in the kidney. The lungs take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide; this adjusting of physiological systems within the body is called homeostatic regulation. Developmental sperm contributions: fertilization and beyond Gerardo Barroso, showing auditory tube and levator veli palatini muscle. The initial change is called “hyperactivation”, the regulation of blood glucose level. Evidence for the presence of specific receptors for N; but diverting blood from other regions toward the skin also serves this purpose. The respiratory system also helps maintain proper blood pH levels, if the body is unable to reduce its temperature due to outside or physical influences, body temperature is usually about 37.

Maintaining a stable internal environment requires constant monitoring and adjustments as conditions change. This adjusting of physiological systems within the body is called homeostatic regulation. The receptor receives information that something in the environment is changing. The control center or integration center receives and processes information from the receptor. And lastly, the effector responds to the commands of the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus. This is an ongoing process that continually works to restore and maintain homeostasis.

Because the internal and external environments of the body are constantly changing and adjustments must be made continuously to stay at or near the set point, homeostasis can be thought of as a synthetic equilibrium. Since homeostasis is an attempt to maintain the internal conditions of an environment by limiting fluctuations, it must involve a series of negative feedback loops. Negative feedback: a reaction in which the system responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change. Since this tends to keep things constant, it allows the maintenance of homeostasis. For instance, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the human body increases, the lungs are signaled to increase their activity and expel more carbon dioxide. Thermoregulation is another example of negative feedback.