System dynamics 2nd edition pdf

Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. The MBTI was constructed for normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences. The underlying assumption of the MBTI system dynamics 2nd edition pdf that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation.

Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers extrapolated their MBTI theory from Carl Jung’s writings in his book Psychological Types. Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. Jung’s theory was similar to, but went far beyond, her own. Briggs’s four types were later identified as corresponding to the IXXXs, EXXPs, EXTJs and EXFJs.

Briggs’s daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mother’s typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. However, neither Myers nor Briggs was formally educated in the discipline of psychology, and both were self-taught in the field of psychometric testing. Myers therefore apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and who went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the United States. From Hay, Myers learned rudimentary test construction, scoring, validation, and statistical methods. Briggs and Myers began creating the indicator during World War II in the belief that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs that would be “most comfortable and effective” for them.

The Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. Myers’ work attracted the attention of Henry Chauncey, head of the Educational Testing Service. Under these auspices, the first MBTI Manual was published in 1962. The third edition appeared in 1998.

Jung’s theory of psychological types was not based on controlled scientific studies, but instead on clinical observation, introspection, and anecdote—methods regarded as inconclusive in the modern field of scientific psychology. The MBTI takes what is called a “structured” approach to personality assessment. The responses to items are considered “closed” and interpreted according to the theory of the test constructers in scoring. This is contrary to the “projective” approach to personality assessment advocated by psychodynamic theorists such as Carl Jung.

Indeed, Jung was a proponent of the “word association” test as a measure of the unconscious dispositions influencing behavior. Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts and interior for introverts. The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite orientation. If the dominant cognitive function is introverted the other functions are extraverted and vice versa.

Fundamental to the MBTI is the theory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung. Jung believed that for every person, each of the functions is expressed primarily in either an introverted or extraverted form. Based on Jung’s original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, described below, on which the MBTI is based. Jung’s typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: people are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or “dichotomies”, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. These abbreviations are applied to all 16 types.